According to John McCarthy (father of Artificial Intelligence), it is “The science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs”.
It is a branch of Computer Science named Artificial Intelligence pursues creating computers or machines as intelligent as human beings. It is a way of making a computer, a computer-controlled robot, or a software think intelligently, in a similar manner the intelligent humans believe.
In another way we define, Artificial Intelligence is a way of making a computer, a computer-controlled robot, or a software think intelligently in a similar manner the intelligent humans believe.
The study of systems that attempt to model and apply the intelligence of the human mind.
History of Artificial Intelligence
In 1943, McCullough and Pitts’ developed “artificial neurons”.
In 1950, Inventions of Alan Turing’s “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”.
In 1951, Artificial Intelligence was used in Games.
In 1956, Dartmouth conference; And the birth of Artificial Intelligence.
In 1965, Robinson’s complete algorithm for logical reasoning.
In the duration 1969 – 79, Early development of knowledge-based systems took place.
In the duration 1980 – 88, Expert system industry booms.
In the duration 1988 – 93, Expert system industry busts “AI winter”.
Finally, 1993 – Present, Artificial Intelligence is now using rapidly in different technologies; And is achieving its goal.
Need for Artificial Intelligence
- To create expert systems which exhibit intelligent behaviour, learn, demonstrate, explain, and advice its users.
- To Implement human intelligence in machines which create systems that understand, think, learn, and behave like humans
Use of Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence has been used in various field such as
- Smartphones: –
Artificial Intelligence and ML have enhanced the smartphone experience hugely. Android, iOS and Windows mobile platforms are integrating AI and ML in various their various apps. Moreover, with the use of AI decision making has become a lot quicker and precise by accumulating a massive volume of information. The upcoming future is going to be smart for smartphones with AI and with that free economy will grow hugely with time. Artificial intelligence has introduced the users a new method to search using images and voice, unlike text mode which reduces the searching time provide flexibility to the user. Moreover, because of the integrated AI in mobile apps, we are getting the image recognition system and voice recognition system.
The smartphone camera is getting better in subject detection with the use of AI. Also, the interface of a smartphone camera can quickly detect the subject in the camera frame like food, landscape, fireworks etc.
By integrating AI, the smartphone will become capable of translating different languages in real-time without any need for the internet connection.
By integrating AI, face unlocks feature is ready to use for the smartphones to provide security.
Applications such as Siri that act as personal assistants, GPS and Maps applications that give users the best or the shortest routes to take as well as the traffic and time estimate to reach there, use artificial intelligence.
- Gaming: –
Artificial Intelligence plays an essential role in decision games such as chess, poker, tic-tac-toe and many more where a machine can think of many possible positions based on heuristic knowledge. The video game industry is probably one of the earliest adopters of AI.
- Natural Language Processing: –
Artificial Intelligence is used in Natural language processing. It is possible to interact with the computer that understands the natural language spoken by humans.
- Expert Systems: –
An expert system is a computer program that uses artificial intelligence to simulate the judgment and behaviour of a human or an organisation that has an expert knowledge and experience in a field. An Expert System is a computer program designed to act as an expert in a particular domain (area of expertise). Expert systems currently are designed to assist experts, not to replace them, they have been used in medical diagnosis, chemical analysis, geological explorations etc. Expert systems have played a significant role in many industries including in financial services, telecommunications, healthcare, customer service, transportation, video games, manufacturing, aviation and written communication. An expert system is also made for the medical field too. An expert system can help doctors to assess patients and their health risks.
The following figure is of Nasa K10 rover expert system of a robot
- Vision Systems: –
These systems recognize, interpret, and comprehend visual input on the computer. For example, A spying aeroplane takes photographs, which are used to figure out spatial information or map of the areas. Police use computer software that can recognise the face of criminal with the stored portrait made by a forensic artist.
- Speech Recognition: –
Some Artificial Intelligence-based systems are capable of hearing and comprehending the language concerning sentences and their meanings while some human talks to it. It can handle different accents, slang words, noise in the background, change in human sounds due to cold, etc.
- Handwriting Recognition: –
Some Artificial Intelligence-based software has been developed for handwriting recognition that reads the text written on paper by a pen or on screen by a digital stylus. It can recognise text, shapes of the letters and convert them into editable text.
- Intelligent Robots: –
AI is used to create Intelligent Robots. Robots can do the tasks given by a human. They have sensors to notice physical data from the real world such as light, heat, temperature, movement, sound, bump, and pressure. They have well-organized processors, multiple sensors and huge memory, to exhibit intelligence. Besides, they are capable of learning from their mistakes, and they can adapt to the new environment.
- Online Ads Network: –
One of the main users of artificial intelligence is the online ad industry which uses AI to not only track user statistics but also serve us ads based on those statistics.
- Navigation and Travel: –
Google use artificial intelligence to interpret hundreds of thousands of data point that they receive to give you real-time traffic data. When you are calling an Uber, both the pricing and the car that matches your ride request is decided by AI.
- Security and Surveillance: –
It is not possible for humans to keep monitoring multiple monitors with feeds from hundreds if not thousands of cameras at the same time, and hence, using AI makes perfect sense.
- Banking and Finance: –
The banking and finance industry deeply depend on artificial intelligence for things like customer service, fraud protection, investment, and many more.
- Smart Home Devices: –
Many of the smart home devices that we buy use artificial intelligence to learn our behaviour so that they can adjust the settings themselves to make the experience as frictionless as possible for us.
Artificial Intelligence Advantages
- The advantages of Artificial Intelligence are as follows,
- Daily Application: -As we know that computed methods and learning have become commonplace in everyday life. Financial institutions and banking institutions are widely using Artificial Intelligence. That is to organise and manage data. Also, it is used in the detection of fraud users in a smart card-based system.
- No Breaks: -The essential advantage of artificial intelligence is that machines do not require sleep or breaks and can work without stopping. They can uninterruptedly perform the same task without getting bored or tired. Unlike humans, they don’t need refreshments and frequent breaks.
- Efficient: – AI is efficient to use of labour resources by hiring robots for some jobs in quick time. Situations that are monotonous can be easily carried out with the help of machines.
- Error Avoidance: – Artificial Intelligence can significantly use to avoid or reduce the errors while solving any problems.
- Faster Decisions: – Using Artificial intelligence, decisions can be taken very fast.
Artificial Intelligence Disadvantages
The disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence are as follows,
- Unemployability: – As we are aware that Artificial Intelligence-based machines do their work and repeatable tasks much better than humans and in quick time. Moreover, machines are used instead of humans to increase their profitability in businesses. Replacement of people with Artificial Intelligence-based technologies can lead to massive scale unemployment, which is an undesirable phenomenon. Artificial intelligence will make people lose their creative power and become lazy.
- High Cost: – Creation of artificially intelligent system requires substantial costs. Also, their maintenance and repair need lots of money too. The procedure to recover lost codes and reinstating the system may require enormous time and cost.
- No Creativity: – Artificial Intelligence-based technology cannot advise you in a specific task as they don’t have the power of the human brain. People are emotional and highly sensitive, they think, feel and hear and their thoughts are guided by the feelings which fully lacks in machines. Machines don’t have emotions and moral values. They performed what is programmed and can’t make the judgement of wrong or right. If there is an unfamiliar situation to them, they can’t take decisions or perform either breakdown or incorrectly.